Tuesday, March 20, 2012

Supplement -Brief History of Antinuclear Movment-

       The beginning was invention of atomic bomb.

      After WW2, United Nations (U.N.) proposed the Baruch Plan to establish an international corporation for the peaceful application of nuclear energy in 1946. A movement against military controlling nuclear energy by scientists has developed. The MacMahon Act was passed to realize civil control of the atom in U.S.

(Photograph#2; source of photograph:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shippingport_Reactor.jpg)

     As a new source of energy, the first civilian nuclear power plant was installed in Shippingport, Pennsylvania. According to Downey, American view of "national progress as a process constituted by enhanced individual freedom manifest in increasing economic standards of living and facilitated by democratic government. The ideology makes progress a responsibility as well an effort of economic activity..." (Downey 1986:388) That is,  Americans were responsible for their progress.   


     In the 1958, there was the first Aldermaston march to protest nuclear weapon. Later they also started singing and playing guitar. [Wikipedia 2012]  

(Photograph#3; source of photograph: http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/musicblog/2008/aug/10/aldermaston)

     During 1960s several protests were done by citizen to resist to both commercial and military uses of nuclear power. Before 1960's, nuclear energy was considered as eco-friendly energy even by antinuclear groups. [Wellock 1998] And still, some people believe that is true. In 1957 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was founded.
     In the 1970's, people started paying attention to broad range of environmental problems such as air pollution, water pollution, and the quality of life. At the same time, the ecology and environmentalist movement emerged. As a result, antinuclear movement  started to deal with thermal pollution.[Prince 1990]

        The large nuclear movement has emerged after 1973-73 energy crisis. The Sierra Club, one of the oldest, largest, and most influential environmental organization in the U.S,  started to oppose  nuclear plant construction until safety and waste disposal problems had been solved. This stance is called nuclear moratorium. The antinuclear movement was born.

     The accidental death of Karen Silkwood, a worker at the plutonium-reprocessing facility, and natural events such as  danger of tsunami at Diablo Canyon created a sense of urgency. And necessity of international cooperation was acknowledged. Supporters of antinuclear movement were becoming more inclusive of diverse segments of society.  [Prince 1990]
     Occupancy of Seabrook nuclear plant in New Hampshire by members of the Clamshell Alliance was successful.

(Photograph#5 ;source of photograph: http://www.foodnotbombs.net/happy_birthday_fnb.html)

     The Three Mile Island accident occurred on 28th March 1979 in Harrisburg Pennsylvania triggered demonstrations such as "playing dead" in San Francisco. It became a symbol of antinuclear movement.

    There are many antinuclear movements in Europe too. The famous group is Friends of the Earth. They used similar strategic and tactical leadership to American used. In West Germany, Sweden, France, Holland, and Britain movement became strongest. [Prince 1990]

     There were not so many powerful oppositions to nuclear power in Asia or in South America. However in Japan antinuclear movement that oppose nuclear weapons was more popular.     

    "Reagan revolution" brought fundamental changes in national policy.  The Chernobyl nuclear power disastrous accident brought antinuclear protests change of their tactics and strategies of antinuclear movement. Their concern shifted to evacuation plans in the case of a nuclear accident, nuclear-waste dump sites, safety violations and cover-ups, the breeder reactor and nuclear fuels reprocessing and the production of plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. [Prince 1990] 

(Photograph#6; Photogpraphed by REUTERS/Damir Sagolj ;Source of photographhttp://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/04/0425_060425_chernobyl.html)

   And now Japan's disaster occurred last year reactivated antinuclear movement not only in Japan but also all over the world.


(Photograph# 7; Photographed by Manu Fernandez/AP Photo; Source of photography: http://www.timesonline.com/gallery/news/international-nuclear-protests/collection_a8923bf8-5964-11e0-8a5d-0017a4a78c22.html)


 The black banner says "Fukushima warns: Pull the Plug on all Nuclear Power Plants" ( Beaver County Times 2011)

                              (Photograph#8; Photographed  Roberto Pfeil/AP Photo ; source of photography: http://www.timesonline.com/gallery/news/international-nuclear-protests/collection_a8923bf8-5964-11e0-8a5d-0017a4a78c22.html  )


Bainbridg,Luke. 2008. "Power to the people". http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/musicblog/2008/aug/10/aldermaston.consulted 19th March 2012

Downey, Gary.L. 1986 Writting as Risk in Culture:The American Conlfict Over Nuclear Power. Cultural Anthropology Vol.1, issue 4:388-412
Fernandez, Manu. 2011. "Spain Japan Eathquake". http://www.timesonline.com/spain-japan-eathquake/image_4e690b80-5963-11e0-925a-0017a4a78c22.html. 19th March 2012

IAEA. 2012. "About the IAEA". http://www.iaea.org/About/.consulted 17th March 2012 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC NEWS. 2010. "Photo Gallery: Chernobyl, 20 Years After the Disaster". http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/04/0425_060425_chernobyl.html. 19th March 2012 

Pfeil, Roberto. 2011. "Germany Nuclear Protest". http://www.timesonline.com/germany-nuclear-protest/image_bfe7a10a-5962-11e0-8636-0017a4a78c22.html. 19th March 2012
Price, Jerome . 1989[1982]. THE ANTINUCLEAR MOVEMENT.Rev.edition. Boston:Twayne Publishers

The Food Not Bomb. 2012. "The Story of Food Not Bomb". http://www.foodnotbombs.net/happy_birthday_fnb.html. 19th March 2012
TransGriot. "65th Anniversary Of Hiroshima Atom Bombing". http://transgriot.blogspot.ca/2010/08/65th-anniversary-of-hiroshima-atom.html. consulted 19th March 2012

Wellock, Thomas R. 1998. Critical Masses. London:The University of Wisconsin Press
Wikipedia. 2012. "Anti-nuclear Protests". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-nuclear_protests consulted 19th March 2012
Wilipedia. 2012 "File:Shippingport Reactor.jpg". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shippingport_Reactor.jpg. consulted 19th March 2012

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